The conference "Inequality. A Challenge for African-European Cooperation" was organized by the Vienna Institute for International Dialogue and Cooperation (VIDC) and the Southern Africa Documentation and Cooperation Centre (SADOCC). The dialogue conference "Inequality. A Challenge for African-European Cooperation" took place within the framework of the Austrian Presidency of the European Union in Vienna, 26th and 27th November 2018. Inequalities are some of today's greatest challenges which undermines poverty reduction and sustainable development and fuels insecurity, conflicts and forced migration. Beside growing income and/or wealth inequalities within the European and African countries the disparities between the two continents have grown significantly in recent decades.